Callistus Chinwuba Ugwu


Nigeria in particular and Africa in general is suffering from leadership meltdown and the consequences are under development in its entirety with the resultant poverty and soaring rates of unemployment and underemployment of her youths. In an effort to re-standardize and adapt the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Form-5X) for Nigerian use, the study embarked on the construct revalidation of MLQ (Form 5X) scale, the principal instrument developed by Bass and Avolio (1997) to measure transformational leadership style capable of bringing the needed change and transformation in Nigeria. Review of literature revealed inconsistent research findings due mainly to psychometric properties of the MLQ. Data collected from a sample of three hundred and fifty commercial bank workers and employees of a production company (185 males and 165 females) in Enugu South-East of Nigeria with their age range of 23 to 51 years and the mean age of 34.52 years (S.D=9.32) were employed to investigate the underlying factor structure of the MLQ (Form 5X). Construct validity of the instrument was tested by means of confirmatory factor analyses testing the goodness of fit indices (chi-square, X2/df, GFI, AGFI and RMSEA), calculation of Cronbach alpha, and correlation of within and across construct. The results showed acceptable GFI, AGFI, and RMSEA index indicating that the data was a good fit to the hypothesized model. The coefficient alpha of reliability were generally significant and above the minimum target of 0.70 (Nunnally, 1978), and the correlation of the construct showed that the instrument was robust, reliable and valid for assessing the leadership style in Nigeria. The results as well as the implications were discussed and conclusion and suggestion for further studies were drawn.


Construct revalidation; multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ); transformational leadership; transactional leadership; laissez-faire leadership; Nigeria

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