Timothy Ubelejit Nte


This paper attempts to fill the gap in the literature of separation of power and checks and balances by evaluating the monarchical government of Oyo Empire (present day Nigeria). Evidently, Oyo Empire had one of the highest checks-and-balance loops in the world. The reason is that gross misconduct at any level in the administrative hierarchy spells not only voluntary resignation but also suicide. There was clear separation of power between the executive led by the Alaafin, the Oyomesi (legislature) led by the Bashorun, the Ogboni led by Oluwo, and the Eso led by the Are-Ona-Kakanfo.  Tripartite separation of power made popular by USA is most exalted in our contemporary world but there is also the bipartite as in Britain, the quadripartite as in Brazil etc. The objectives of the study are: To evaluate separation of powers in the light of tripartite system made popular by the 1787 Constitution of USA and the quadripartite system practiced in ancient Oyo before the 15th century.  To examine the elements, types and prospects of monarchical government. To evaluate the legacy of monarchical government in Oyo Empire as one of the governments with the highest checks-and-balance loops in the world. The study is predicated on the theoretical framework of the divine rights of kings and the qualitative research methodology was adopted. This article recommends that leaders should be more accountable bearing in mind that gross misconduct in some systems of government attracts the supreme punishment through suicide.

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