MONARCHICAL GOVERNMENT AND CHECKS AND BALANCE SYSTEMS THE INTERNATIONAL LEGACY OF OYO EMPIRE

Timothy Ubelejit Nte

Abstract


This paper attempts to fill the gap in the literature of separation of power and checks and balances by evaluating the monarchical government of Oyo Empire (present day Nigeria). Evidently, Oyo Empire had one of the highest checks-and-balance loops in the world. The reason is that gross misconduct at any level in the administrative hierarchy spells not only voluntary resignation but also suicide. There was clear separation of power between the executive led by the Alaafin, the Oyomesi (legislature) led by the Bashorun, the Ogboni led by Oluwo, and the Eso led by the Are-Ona-Kakanfo.  Tripartite separation of power made popular by USA is most exalted in our contemporary world but there is also the bipartite as in Britain, the quadripartite as in Brazil etc. The objectives of the study are: To evaluate separation of powers in the light of tripartite system made popular by the 1787 Constitution of USA and the quadripartite system practiced in ancient Oyo before the 15th century.  To examine the elements, types and prospects of monarchical government. To evaluate the legacy of monarchical government in Oyo Empire as one of the governments with the highest checks-and-balance loops in the world. The study is predicated on the theoretical framework of the divine rights of kings and the qualitative research methodology was adopted. This article recommends that leaders should be more accountable bearing in mind that gross misconduct in some systems of government attracts the supreme punishment through suicide.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afolayan, Funso (2000). Falola, Toyin, ed. Kingdoms of West Africa: Benin, Oyo and Asante. Carolina Academic Press

Bigongiari, Dino (1997) The political ideals of St. Thomas Aquinas: Representative Selections, The Free Press New York

Carlson, Johnni (2017-Jul-20). The 10 Main Characteristics of the Monarchy. Lifepersona @ https://www.lifepersona.com/the-10-main-characteristics-of-the-monarchy

Fasanya, Akin (2004). "The Original Religion of the Yorubas". http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html

Figgis, Neville J. (1896) The Theory of the Divine Right of Kings. reprint ed. (Kessinger Publishing, LLC. 2007)

Ilya, Somin (29-Apr-2014). Does separation of powers lead to a monarchical presidency? The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2014/04/29/does-separation-of-powers-lead-to-a-monarchical-presidency/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.a7c05c796c87

Hansen, Mogen (2010). The mixed constitution versus the separation of powers: Monarchical and aristocratic aspects of modern democracy

Hillay, Zmora (2001). Monarchy, aristocracy and state in Europe. Routledge

Johari, J. C. (2012). Principles of Modern Political Science. Sterling Publishers Limited New Delhi p75

Johnni, Carlson (2017-Jul-20). The 10 Main Characteristics of the Monarchy. Lifepersona @ https://www.lifepersona.com/the-10-main-characteristics-of-the-monarchy

Madison, James (1787). Federalist Papers #51

Melvin, Richter (2003). Montesquieu: Selected Political Writings, Hackett Classics @ https://www.amazon.com/Montesquieu-Selected-Political-Writings-Classics/dp/0872200906

New World Encyclopedia, Monarchy @ http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Monarchy

Niklas, Manhart (2008). The Principles of the separation of powers and checks and balances as reflected in the United States Constitution, Department of Government, University College Cork, USA.

Robert, Longley (2018-Jun-01). Separation of Powers: A System of Checks and Balances. Thoughtco @ https://www.thoughtco.com/separation-of-powers-3322394

Smith, Robert S. (1989). Warfare & Diplomacy in Pre-Colonial West Africa Second Edition. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Stride, G.T. and Ifeka C. (1971). Peoples and Empires of West Africa: West Africa. Edinburgh: Nelson.

Thornton, John K. (1999). Warfare in Atlantic Africa 1500-1800. London and New York: Routledge.

Ward, Lee (2014). Modern Democracy and the Theological-Political Problem in Spinoza, Rousseau, and Jefferson: Recovering Political Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan

Weerda, Jan (1960). Calvin, in Evangelisches Soziallexikon, Stuttgart Germany p210

Wilde, Robert (2018-Jan-12). What Is a Monarchy? The Crown Jewels at Tower of London


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN (Print): 2276-8645

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.