SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER IN OGOCHIE RIVER IN NGOR OKPALA L.G.A., IMO STATE

E. C. Onyenechere, P. O. Chukwukere

Abstract


This study assesses the water quality of Ogochie River in Ngor Okpala L.G.A., Imo State in order to ascertain any seasonal variation. Particularly, it investigated the following physico-chemical parameters of the river water namely pH, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Ammonia (NH4),  Chloride (Cl), Total Hardness, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). These were determined from water samples collected using the composite method at four locations (points) along the river, in the dry season and rainy season using recommended standard. The data obtained were further analyzed using Post hoc statistical test. The result showed that some of the values of the sample parameters were above or below the WHO standards. The p-value for locations (points) 1 to 4 against WHO standards are 0.043, 0.038, 0.040 and 0.034 respectively for the dry season; while the p-value for locations (points) 1 to 4 against WHO standards for the rainy season are 0.046, 0.049, 0.037 and 0.033 respectively. This result showed that there are significant variations in the water quality at different sample locations (points) and at different seasons. The water is not considered safe for drinking either in the rainy season or dry season. It is therefore recommended that the river water be treated locally by boiling and filtering before consumption.


Keywords


Water quality, Ogochie River, Imo State, Season, Variation, Physico-chemical

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acholonu A.D. W. (2008). Water quality studies of Nworie River in Owerri, Nigeria. Mississippi: Academy of Sciences.

Adesoji, B.A. (2017). Towards effective watershed management in Nigeria. Proceedings of 8th conference of NAHS held at University of Abuja, 17th to 20th.

Ahamefule, H.E. and Mbagwu, J.S.E. (2007). Effects of phosphorus and four tillage mulch systems on the physico-chemical properties of Ultisol in eastern Nigeria. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Environment, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 25-32.

Ahiarakwem C. and Onyekuru, S. (2011). A comparative assessment of the physicochemical and microbial trends in Njaba River, Niger Delta Basin, southeasthern Nigeria”. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Volume 3, Issue 9, pp. 686-693.

Anambra Imo River Basin Development Authority (AIRBDA). (2014). Ensuring acceptable water quality in South Eastern Nigeria. Report of Anambra Imo River Basin Development Authority Owerri.

Chukwu, O. (2008). Analysis of groundwater pollution from abbatoir waste in Minna, Nigeria Research. Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp. 74 – 77.

Duru, M.K.C., Nwanekwu, K.E, Adindu, E.A. and Odunka, P.C. (2012a). Heavy metal and bioload levels of Otamiri River, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp. 1002-1006.

Duru, M.K.C., Adindu E.A., Odika, P.C., Amadi, B., Okazi, Chima Ezika, R., (2012b). Consequences of long term consumption of water from Nworie River (Owerri Nigeria) on hematological, hepatic and renal functions using rat model. International Journal of the Nigerian Institute for Experimental Biology, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp.52-57.

Ebin, O.I. and Effiong, J. (2017). Assessment of surface water quality in Yakur Local Government Area, CrossRiver state. Paper present at 8th conference of NAHS, Abuja, October, 2017.

Ernest, C.I., and Onweremadu, E.U. (2016). Classification of soil along Ogochie River floodplain in Ngor-Okpala Imo State South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Global Resources, Volume 2, pp. 76-83.

Ezenwaji,E.E., Eduputa, B.M., and Uwadiegwu, B.O. (2014). Pollution of Ekulu River in Enugu: A case of negative human impact on the environment. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Volume 8, Issue 10, pp 83-92.

Fakayode, S.O. (2005). Impact assessment of industrial effluents on water quality of the receiving Alaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria. AJAEM- RAGEE volume10, pp. 1 – 13.

Goncalves de Souza, A.D. and Tundisi J.G. (2003). Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatao River in Pernambuco, Brazil. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Volume 466, Issue 4, pp. 1-10.

Government of Imo State of Nigeria (1984) Atlas of Imo State of Nigeria. Mins. of Works & Transport, Dept. of Lands, Survey and Urban Development,G & G

Igbozurike, U.M., Ijiomah, M. and Onyenechere, E.C. (2010). Rural water supply in Nigeria. Owerri, Cape Publishers.

Kelgely,E. S., and Andrew J. (1998). The chemistry of water, 2nd edition, California: University Science books, pp. 131-162.

Narayana, P. (2009). Environmental pollution: Principles, analysis and control, New Delhi: CBC publishers, Limited, pp. 124-154.

Nwagbara, J.O., Ibeneme, S.I., Dim, E.E., Iroegbu, U.K., Selemo, A.O., Ejwgo, B.C., and Onyekwu, S.O. (2013). Hydrogeochemical analysis of water samples from Nworie river, Owerri southeast Nigeria. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, Volume 2, Issue 9, pp. 58-67.

Nwanebu, F.C., Ogbulie, J.N, Obi, R.K., and Ojiako, O.A. (2011) Chemical and silt-induced eutrophication syndrome at Otamiri river, Owerri, Nigeria. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, Volume 3, Issue 8, pp. 358-361.

Obodo, G.A (2002). Pollution estimates of rivers Nworie, Otamiri, Imo, Aba, and Mbaa. The Physical Scientist, volume 1, pp 27-33.

Ogbulie, T.E, Ogbulie, J.N., and Umezurike, I. (2008). Biodegradation of detergents by aquatic bacterial, flora from Otamiri River, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp. 824-830.

Ogidi, M. I., and Nwadiaro, C.S. (1998). Geophysical limnology of lake Oguta, South eastern Nigeria. Hydrobiological Bulletin, Volume 22, pp. 133-126.

Okeke, P.N, and Adinna, E.N. (2013). Water quality study of Otamiri River in Owerri. Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology. Volume 3, Issue 6, pp. 641-649.

Okonko, L.O., Adejoye, O.D., Ogunnusi, T.A., Fayobi, E.A., and Shittu, O.B. (2008). Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 7, pp. 617-621.

Okorie, D.O., and Nwosu, D.O (2014). Seasonal variations in physicochemical properties of Imo River. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. Volume 9, Issues 5, pp. 7-9.

Okoro, B.C., Uzoukwu, R.A., and Chimezie, N.M. (2014). River Basins of Imo State for sustainable water resources engineering. Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 38-41.

Okoro, B.C., Uzoukwu, O., and Ademe, C.K. (2016). Investigation of surface water quality in Owerri municipal, Imo State, Nigeria for human consumption. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 13, pp. 8100-8106.

Onyekuru, S.O., Okereke, C.N., Ibeneme, S.I., Nnaji, A.O., Akolisa, C.Z., Ahiarakwem, C.A., Ibecheozo, M.O., and Ukwe, C.N. (2014). An evaluation of the spatial distributions of the physico-chemical microbial contents of Nworie river in Owerri, South eastern Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Volume 4, Issue 25, pp. 36-87.

Umunakwe, J.E. and Nnaji, A.O. (2015). Use of water pollution index to assess the levels of dissolved organic and inorganic substances in Nworie River Owerri, Imo State Nigeria. Journal of Civil and Environmental Research, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp. 44-53.

World health organization (W.H.O) (1996). Guideline for drinking water quality. Expert committee on international standards for drinking water, 2nd edition. Austria, pp. 20-22.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN (Print): 2276-8645

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.