HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS INCLUDING CRIMES OF GENOCIDE IN AFRICA

Joan Mbagwu (PhD)

Abstract


This study examined the principles of human rights and the implications of violation and protection, especially in Africa. This study established the fact that there are strong links between peace and human right protection and conflict and human rights violation.  Also, the study showed the importance of consideration for human rights values in the development and how the United Nations is pushing for human right protections in their programs, especially in post conflict reconstruction. Instances of violations and the consequences in Africa were identified, including the use of International Criminal Courts in the cases of Sierra Leone and Rwanda. Even, the history of genocide was traced and the efforts of the UN to cub impunity through the Responsibility to Protect mechanism. This study went ahead to make recommendations on the need to respect human rights laws for sustainable peace, and avoid conditions that make genocide possible. 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Annan, K. (1999). Peace and Development — One Struggle, Two Fronts. The United Nations Secretary–General’s address to World Bank staff Full text available at http://www.worldbank.org

Bae, S. H. and Ott, A. F. (2008) Predatory behavior of governments: the case of mass killings. In Defence and Peace Economics 19(2): 107-125.

Deutsch, M. (2000). Justice and Conflict. In (Eds.), M. Deutsch and P.T. Coleman The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. (p. 51) San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Galtung, J. (1971). A Structural Theory of Imperialism. Journal of Peace Research, Vol.13, No.2.

Goldstein J. S. and Pevehouse J. C. (2011) International Relations 9th ed. 2010-2011 Update. Pearson

Harff, B. (1987) The Etiology of Genocides In I. Wallimann and M. N. Dobkowski (Eds.) Genocide and the Modern Age, Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death, New York: Greenwood Press.

Harff, B. (2003) No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955', Vol. 97: Cambridge Journals Online.

Hayden, P. (2001) The Philosophy of Human Rights. Paragon.

Krain, M. 1997 State-Sponsored Mass Murder: The Onset and Severity of Genocides and Politicides. In The Journal of Conflict Resolution 41(3): 331-360.

Lauren P.G. (2003) The Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen. Pennsylvania

aiese, M. (July 2003) Dehumanization. In Beyond Intractability. (Eds.) G. Burgess and H. Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. http://www.beyondintractability.org/bi-essay/dehumanization.

Melson, R. 1989 ' Genocide in the 20th Century. Revolutionary Genocide: On the Causes of the Armenian Genocide of 1915 and the Holocaust', Holocaust Genocide Studies 4( 2): 161-174.

Midlarsky, M. I. (2005) The killing trap: genocide in the twentieth century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moghalu, K. (2008) Global Justice: The Politic of War Crimes Trials Stanford

Montalvo, J. and Reynal-Querol, M. 2005 'Ethnic polarisation, potential conflict, and civil wars', American Economic Review 95(3): 796-816.

Opotow, S. (2000) Aggression and Violence. In (Eds.) M. Deutsch and P.T. Coleman The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. (p. 417) San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Opotow, S. (1995) Drawing the Line: Social Categorization, Moral Exclusion, and the Scope of Justice. In (Eds.) B.B. Bunker and J.Z. Rubin Cooperation, Conflict, and Justice: Essays Inspired by the Work of Morton Deutsch. (p. 347) New York: Sage Publications.

Parlevliet, M (2000) Bridging the Divide – Exploring the Relationship between Human Rights and Conflict Management. In (Eds.) Christof Heyns and Karen Stefiszyn Human Rights, Peace and Justice in Africa: A Reader. Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press

Prunier, G. (2008) Darfur: A 21st Century Genocide. 3rd ed. Cornell

Rubin, J. Z. and Pruitt, D. G. (1994). Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement, 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw Hill College Division.

Rummel, R. J. (1995) Democracy, power, genocide and mass murder. In Journal of Conflict Resolution 39(1): 3-26.

Samantha Power (2001) Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen. The Atlantic Monthly. www.theatlantic.com/issues

Schiff, B. N. (2004) Building the International Criminal Court Cambridge

Stein, J. G. (1996) Image, Identity and Conflict Resolution. In C. A. Crocker, F. O. Hampson, and P. R. Aall (Eds.) Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict. (p.94) Herndon, VA: USIP Press.

Stewart, F. (2011) Economic and Political Causes of Genocidal Violence: A comparison with findings on the causes of civil war. In MICROCON Research Working Paper 46, Brighton: MICROCON

Stewart, F. and Brown, G. (2007) Motivations for Conflict: Groups and Individuals. In C. Crocker, F. Hampson and P. Aall (eds) Leashing the Dogs of War, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace.

Valentino, B. (2000) Final solutions: the causes of mass killing and genocide. In Security Studies 9(3): 1-59.

Vincent, R. J. (1986) Human Rights and International Relations (p. 13) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

http://www.humansecurityinitiative.org/genocide-mass-crimes

Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization: The Genocide of the Armenians (Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation, Inc., Brookline, Massachusetts), 2004, pp. 186-189. http://www.iciss.ca/report–en.asp


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN (Print): 2276-8645

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.