Ombo Kuro Nahum, Felix Chidozie (PhD)


This study is based on the problem that colonial demarcated undetermined borders of most African territories, still create tension along border regions threatening border security. This paper emphasizes the concept of border security in terms of territorial sovereignty concerns. This paper seeks to analyze what territorial sovereignty implies in the case of the Djibouti and Eritrea border crisis over the territory of Ras Doumeira. Other sub-elements to be analyzed include the extent that territorial boundaries become threatened and treated as a border security issue. The degree at which a breach of physical boundaries invite international reaction. Highlighting the use of spatial analysis this paper contends that the implementation of territorial borders in Africa does not exactly define the position of linear border demarcations, particularly in the case of the Djibouti and Eritrea border crisis. Therefore this paper exerts that the position at which a state exercises political domination over a given space of territory in rival of another state, delineated by a common separated line, determines the extent of the state to call it as its border. It other words the coercion in which a state lays claim to a territory determines the border in the reality of international relations.


border security, territorial sovereignty, spatial analysis, Ras Doumeira, border crisis

Full Text:



Duke (2011). Djibouti–Eritrea. (Retreived 17 May 2020)

Frowd P.M (2015). Securing Borders In West Africa: Transnational Actors, Practices, And Knowledges: A Ph.D Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies. McMaster University. Ontario

Gettleman, J. (2018). Border dispute between Djibouti, Eritrea could imperil Red Sea shipping lanes. New York Times, 26 May 2018,. http://www.nytimes. com/2018/05/25/world/africa/25djibouti.html?_r=1&oref=slogin (Retrieved 27 May 2020).

Gettleman, J. (2018). In Horn of Africa, Djibouti and Eritrea in face-off over border. International Herald Tribune, 25 May 2018. articles/2018/05/24/africa/25djibouti.php (Retrieved 29 May 2020).

Ike-Obioha J (2017). How the Eritrea – Djibouti Border Dispute Affects the International Community. Ventures Africa, July 24, 2017. (Retrieved 16 July 2020).

Legal Information Institute (LII) (2020) Uti Possidetis Juris (Retreived 19 September 2020)

O’Loughlin J , Linke A (2016). Spatial Analysis in Political Geography. (eds) A Companion to Political Geography, Agnew, V. Mamadouh, A. Secor and J. Sharp 2nd edition Wiley-Blackwell. pp 8-12.

Payan. T (2015). Theory-Building in Border Studies: The View from North America. Eurasia Border Review. pp 9-17

Reid, R. (2013). Old problems in new conflicts: some observations on Eritrea and its relations with Tigray, from liberation struggle to inter-state war. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol 73(3):369–401.

Sevastianov, V. S, Laine, P. J. Kireev, A.A. (Eds) (2015) Introduction to Border Studies Vladivostok, Far Eastern Federal University

Soderbaum F, Taylor (2010) State, Region and Space in Africa. (eds) Respacing Africa, Ulf Engel, Paul Nugent. Netherlands, Koninklijke Brill NV. pp 45-70

Ward M. D. and O'Loughlin J (2002). Spatial Processes and Political Methodology: Introduction to the Special Issue. Political Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 3. pp. 213.

White, P. (2012). The Eritrea-Ethiopia border arbitration. Review of African Political Economy Vol 29(92):345–356

Wolff S. (2008). Border management in the Mediterranean: internal, external and ethical challenges. Cambridge Review of International Affairs,Vol 21(2),253-270

UCDP (2020). Djibouti – Eritrea. (Retrieved 3 September 2020)

Young, R (2015). French military intelligence and the Franco-Italian alliance 1933– 1939. Historical Journal, Vol 28(1):143–168

Young, J. (2016). The Tigray and Eritrean liberation fronts: a history of tensions and pragmatism. Journal of Modern African Studies, 34(1):105–120.

Zartman, W. (2018). Ripe for resolution: conflict and intervention in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN (Print): 2276-8645


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.